COVID-19: Ruling on Jumu’a and Eid Prayers in Non-Muslim Countries due to Lockdown

COVID-19: Ruling on Jumu’a and Eid Prayers in Non-Muslim Countries due to Lockdown

Question:

There is a bit of confusion, amongst Muslims residing in the UK, in relation to Hadhrat Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani’s view/fatwa on offering Jumu’a Salat in ‘non-Muslim countries’ due to the Corona virus outbreak (may Allah protect us all) and the subsequent lockdown. It will be greatly appreciated if Hadhrat’s official view is provided in English for the benefit of Muslims residing in the UK and other non-Muslim countries. 

Currently, here in the UK, the government has disallowed congregational prayers, amongst other things. Permission has only been granted for key workers (such as the Imam, Mu’adhin and khadim) to go to the Masjid and live stream services from the Masjid. Therefore, many Masajid have closed for the general public. However, the Adhan is called out for the five daily prayers, and two/three people (usually the Imam and Mu’adhin) attend and offer the Salat, which is generally streamed live.

In view of this, we would like to know:

1) What is the Shari’a ruling on a few (4/5) ‘designated’ people performing Jumu’a Salat in the Masjid? The general public do not have access to the Masjid. However, these few people (generally Imam and admin staff) have special access (such as keys to the main or side entrance) and they attend and offer Jumu’a. Is Jumu’a salat permitted and valid in this manner? (Keep in mind that if someone did turn up for Jumu’a, they would not be refused)

2) Is it permitted for the general public to perform Jumu’a (e.g. 4 family members) at home, or they should perform Zuhr? And if Zuhr, then individually or in congregation?

3) If the lockdown continues till Eid, what will the ruling be for Eid salat, can it be performed at home?

Jazakum Allah

Answer:

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,

1) It is permitted – rather encouraged – to have a few people perform Jumu’a salat in the Masjid, even if their number is restricted due to the government guidelines. This, however, is provided the number of those attending fulfils the minimum requirement for the validity of Jumu’a (four people including the Imam). It is better not to have the Masjid doors closed for Jumu’a, though the Salat would be permitted if they are shut due to the current government restriction.

2) The condition for the permissibility of performing Jumu’a Salat, even in non-Muslim countries, is that general permission (idhn aam) is granted for all Muslims to attend. However, large places within the city, consisting of many people – such as large prisons, airports and big factories – are exempted. Jumu’a is permitted in such places, even if permission is not granted to the general public due to security and administrative reasons, provided all those inside are not prevented from attending Jumu’a. (See: Fatawa Usmani 1/523)

In light of the current lockdown, Muslims residing in non-Muslim countries may perform Jumu’a in places like a compound or hall, where people are not refused from attending. If this is not possible or the law does not allow it, then they should perform Zuhr at home in congregation, and if not possible then individually. 

3) The ruling for Eid Salat follows that of Jumu’a, mentioned in answer two. Those at home who are unable to perform Eid Salat [at the Masjid/Musalla] may perform two or four Rak’at Nafl prayers individually without any extra takbirat.

(و) السابع: (الإذن العام) من الإمام، وهو يحصل بفتح أبواب الجامع للواردين كافي، فلا يضر غلق باب القلعة لعدو أو لعادة قديمة لأن الإذن العام مقرر لأهله وغلقه لمنع العدو لا المصلي، نعم لو لم يغلق لكان أحسن كما في مجمع الأنهر معزيا لشرح عيون المذاهب قال: وهذا أولى مما في البحر والمنح فليحفظ (فلو دخل أمير حصنا) أو قصره (وأغلق بابه) وصلى بأصحابه (لم تنعقد) ولو فتحه وأذن للناس بالدخول جاز وكره (تنوير الأبصار مع الدر المختار: 152/2) 

(والإذن العام) وهو أن يفتح أبواب الجامع للواردين، قالوا: السلطان إذا أراد أن يصلي بحشمه في داره فإن فتح الباب وأذن إذنا عاما جازت الصلاة ولكن يكره وإلا لم يجز كما في الكافي، وما يقع في بعض القلاع من غلق أبوابه خوفا من الأعداء أو كانت له عادة قديمة عند حضور الوقت فلا بأس به لأن إذن العام مقرر لأهله ولكن لو لم يكن لكان أحسن كما في شرح عيون المذاهب. وفي البحر والمنح خلافه لكن ما قررناه أولى لأن الإذن العام يحصل بفتح باب الجامع وعدم المنع ولا مدخل في غلق باب القلعة وفتحه ولأن غلق بابها لمنع العدو لا لمنع غيره تدبر (مجمع الأنهر: 166/1)

قال التمرتاشي والحصكفي في الدر المختار: فإن عجز صلى أربعا كالضحى. قال ابن عابدين: (قوله صلى أربعا كالضحى) أي استحبابا كما في القهستاني وليس هذا قضاء لأنه ليس على كيفيتها ط. قلت: وهي صلاة الضحى كما في الحلية عن الخانية فقوله تبعا للبدائع كالضحى معناه أنه لا يكبر فيها للزوائد مثل العيد (رد المحتار:175/2)

And Allah knows best
Muhammad ibn Adam
15/04/2020

Approved by:
[Shaykh Mufti] Muhammad Taqi Usmani [may Allah protect him]
29-08-1441 / 23-04-2020

Question #: 7714
Published: 23/04/2020