Please could you clarify if it is possible for a woman to do sajda (randomly, outside of prayer) when she is menstruating? I know that Sajda of Tilwat is not compulsory on a menstruating woman, but I ask referring to times when perhaps a woman feels the need to be close to Allah swt.
Things that are a requirement for the prostration of recital (sajdah al-tilawah) are also necessary for the prostration of thankfulness (sajdah al-shukr). As such, it is necessary for one to be in a state of ritual purity in order to offer this prostration.
It is stated in Maraqi al-Falah:
“The method of offering the prostration of thankfulness (sajdah al-shukr) is that one will say the Takbir (Allahu akbar) whilst facing the Qiblah. Then one will prostrate and praise Allah, thank him and recite Tasbih. Thereafter, one will raise his head whilst saying the Takbir (m: once again), similar to the prostration of recital with all its (m: sajdah al-tilawah’s) conditions.” (See: Maraqi al-Falah with the Hashiyah of Tahtawi, p. 500, Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyya print)
Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) clearly mentions the impermissibility of offering Sajdah al-Shukr in the state of menstruation. He states:
“It (m: menstruation) prevents one from performing prayer (salat) unrestrictedly (mutlaqan), even the prostration of thankfulness (sajdah al-shukr).”
Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) comments on the above by stating in his super-commentary (hashiya):
“(al-Haskafi’s statement: “even the prostration of thankfulness”) meaning, or prostration of recital, hence menstruation will prevent the validity of both (m: i.e. Sajdah al-tilawah & sajdah al-shukr) and will make both of them unlawful.” (Radd al-Muhtar ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 1/290-230)
Therefore, it will not be permitted for a woman to offer a prostration of thankfulness (sajdah al-shukr) in the state of menstruation, for purity (from major and minor impurities) is a requirement in order to offer this prostration.
And Allah knows best
[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam
Leicester , UK