Can you explain the rulings with regards to Wudhu and Taharah for a person who has an excuse, such as continuous urine drops?
There are two aspects to your question:
1) When and how is an individual classified as an excused (ma’dhur)?
2) What are the rulings concerning a Ma’dhur?
As far as the first aspect is concerned, a Ma’dhur in relation to the laws of purity is the one who experiences the continuous exiting of ritual impurity from his/her body, such as continuous nose bleed, chronic virginal discharge (istihadha), continuous exiting of blood from a wound or the dripping of urine continuously, etc…. in a way that it remains for the period of one complete Fard Salat time and that one does not find sufficient time wherein Salat can be offered.
After becoming a Ma’dhur once, it is not a condition that these continuous discharges remain for the whole time of every prayer (Salat), rather, by it covering one prayer time; one will be classed as a Ma’dhur. However, it is a condition that this occurs once throughout the other prayer times.
This classification of one being a Ma’dhur will terminate when the occurrence of the discharge fails to appear even once for a whole complete Salat time.
It is stated in the famous Hanafi Fiqh treatise, Maraqi al-Falah:
“A person will not be classed a Ma’dhur until the excuse remains and covers the whole period of a (fard) Salat time wherein the excuse does not seize for even a duration in where one is able to perform ablution and offer Salat, for if it did halt, then one would not be classed as Ma’dhur. This includes where the excuse fails to seize physically in that it is continuous throughout the Salat time, or constructively in that it seizes for a time, but it is too short, thus insufficient for the performance of Wudu and offering of Salat. The condition for one to remain a Ma’dhur is the occurrence of the excuse in the times of each of the subsequent prayer times.” (Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-Idhah, p. 150)
This we become clearer with an example: Suppose Abd Allah had a problem of continuous nose bleed. He bled to the extent that he could not find sufficient time wherein he could perform ablution and offer his Zuhr Salat (this of course would be known by waiting until the end of the time of Zuhr prayer). Due to this, Abd Allah will be classified as a Ma’dhur.
When the Asr time came in, the bleeding only occurred once and not throughout the Asr time, even then he will remain a Ma’dhur. The same was the case with the Maghrib prayer. In the time of Eisha prayer, however, the bleeding stopped altogether and did not occur even once. Due to this, Abd Allah now will no longer be classed as a Ma’dhur person.
In other words, the condition to be classified a Ma’dhur is the occurrence of nose bleeding throughout the time of a Fard Salat. The condition for one to remain in such a state is the occurrence of this bleeding once in the times of the other prayers, and the condition for one to come out of this state is that the bleeding stops completely and does not occur at all during a complete Salat time.
Ruling regarding a Ma’dhur
The ruling with regards to a Ma’dhur is that he/she must perform ablution for each Salat time, and with that Wudu, one may carry out all the various prayers and worships. When the time of the prayer exits, Wudu will be nullified and it will be necessary to renew the Wudu. (al-Lubab fi Sharh al-Kitab, 1/64).
Sayyida Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) relates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said to Fatima bint Abi Hubaysh (Allah be pleased with her) who had the problem of chronic virginal discharge (istihadha): “Perform ablution for every Salat until the time of the next Salat appears.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)
Therefore, the Wudu will remain throughout the time of the prayer. One may offer obligatory (fard) prayers, optional (nawafil) prayers, touch the Qur’an and all the other forms of worship that require Wudu as long as that Salat time remains. Once, the Salat time comes to an end, fresh Wudu must be made.
However, if apart from this problem, Wudu becomes nullified due to some other reason, then the wudu will break and one will have to renew it. An example of this is: a person’s nose began to bleed continuously and refused to stop. At Zuhr time he performed wudu. As long as the Zuhr time remains, his wudu will not become nullified as a result of the bleeding nose. However, if he went to the toilet, or cut himself with a needle and blood flowed, wudu will become nullified and will have to be repeated. (Maraqi al-Falah, P. 149)
It is worth remembering here that Wudu will become nullified due to the exiting of the Salat times and not the entering of the subsequent Salat time. Normally, the exiting of one Salat time is the entering time for the next Salat. However, this is not the case with the time between Fajr and Zuhr prayers. The time of Fajr prayer ends at sunrise, but Zuhr time does not commence until midday ( zawal). Therefore, the time of exiting will be considered and not the time of entering.
This will be clearer with an example: If wudu was made at Fajr time, salat cannot be performed with that wudu after sunrise, a fresh wudu will have to be made, as the exiting of Fajr time nullified the Wudu. If, however, wudu was made after sunrise, it will be permissible to perform Zuhr Salat with that wudu and there is no need to make a fresh wudu for Zuhr, for the entering of Zuhr time does not nullify Wudu. When the time of Zuhr exits (and Asr time enters), then only will it be necessary to make a fresh wudu.
Finally, with regards to the cloths on which the impurity falls, if the impurity is to the amount of a Dirham (50 pence coin) and it is not possible to wash it before the cloths becoming polluted again, then it is not necessary to wash it before offering Salat. If, however, one thinks that, it is possible to wash it and perform Salat without the impurity falling onto the cloths again, then it will be necessary to get rid of it, otherwise Salat will be invalid. (See: al-Lubab fi Sharh al-Kitab, 1/64).
I sincerely hope that all your questions have been answered with the above explanation.
And Allah knows best
[Mufti] Muhammad ibn Adam
Leicester , UK